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DIY cellar – DIY construction

by ladynews

The construction of the cellar with your own hands will help save a large number of vegetables, homework all year round, providing optimal conditions for this and save money. You can make a cellar separately, or under some part of the house-a kitchen, a veranda, a pantry. There are subtleties here. The cellar cannot be made near the barn where cattle are contained, as well as the toilet. Here the distance should be more than 10 m.

There are ground cellars, and depending on the hydrogeological conditions of the area of ​​the site, there may be completely buried or half. It is preferable, as practice shows, the cellar, which goes into the ground for one or two meters.

How to build a cellar

Preparation of the place

To simplify waterproofing subsequently, you need to initially choose a place on a hill under the cellar. If this is not possible, it is necessary to make a spatch from sand and gravel. It is worth planting trees around and foreseeing the entrance from the north side.

After that, the jack of the foundation pit, pouring a 15-centimeter layer of crushed stone to the bottom. It is tamped and poured with hot bitumen, then put concrete. To prepare it, you will need to get a mock:

one part of the cement;

Two sand;

Four parts of crushed stone, you can gravel.

The walls of the cellar

When everything dries, you can put the wall, about two meters high. It is better to make them from brick or concrete (you can apply a laundry stone, asbestos -cement sheets, and wood).

The thickness of the concrete walls can reach 15 cm, brick 12 cm (if masonry is carried out in half a brick) and 25 cm (masonry in one whole brick). If the walls are made of laundry stone, then their thickness should reach up to 25 cm.

Concrete walls are made using wooden formwork, installing it around the perimeter of the cellar vertically.

Make the formwork of boards, the thickness of which is 5 cm. They need to be very tightly adjusted, excluding the formation of cracks. Otherwise, it will begin to flow concrete through them during laying. You can tighten the formwork even more, moistening it with water 3 hours before work starts.

For walls in the cellar use concrete 50 and 100 marks. Knead a mixture of cement and sand. Separately prepare a crushed stone filler (you can take gravel). After that, everything is mixed and shut up with water. It is better to mix on a voluminous wooden shield.

Now we lay a concrete mixture with a layer of twenty centimeters. It needs to be well compressed by a steel rod. This is important so that there are no voids in the concrete mass.

After a day, the concrete layer is covered with a solution of cement, 1 cm thick. Then we level it and smoot it out with a cell. After two days, pour concrete with water. In the first few days we do this five times a day, and three times a day for the fifth day. After a week, the formwork is removed.


For such masonry, select stones about the same in size in each row. Also try to give a more correct shape so that the masonry is dense.

Make sutures between the stones thin, no more than 15 mm. This will allow masonry less to settle and spend less cement.

Before starting work, stones are cleaned of dirt, moistened with water, which will provide the best clutch of cement with stone.

We put the first row without solution. This is necessary in order to more accurately choose the number of stones close to each other in size and shape.

Having finished the fitting, you can start masonry with a solution. The first row of stones is thoroughly trim into the ground, filling the gaps between them with a solution, in which crushed stone is then fed.

To strengthen the masonry, you need to make a dressing of seams. To do this, in each row of the middle of the stones lying on top, the seam of the row should overlap. Ideally, the seam should be blocked half, but the dressing is permissible and a third.

Brick masonry is done in a similar way. It is good in that it is easy to dress the seams here, thanks to the same form of bricks.

Waterproofing of the cellar

The outer walls must be covered with a double layer of bitumen lubrication, between the layers should be glued roofing material. They make a bonding of coarse sand on top to protect the waterproofing coating. Wall slopes should be strengthened with turf.

The overlap of the cellar can be made from the deposited thick pitch, or thick boards. It is better, of course, to use concrete slabs. The ends of the boards resting on the walls are smeared with bitumen. To preserve the heat of the ceiling, you need to make a clay -bearing layer on top (20 cm high), and add a floor layer of earth on top.

Ventilation of the cellar

To support the necessary microclimate, it is necessary to install ventilation pipes in the cellar. Place them inside at various levels. The exhaust hole is located at the top, the supply – below.

It is better to make at least two sections inside the cellar – for fresh vegetables and canned food. Ventilation for each such compartment should be autonomous.

For the descent down the heating, a staircase under a slope of 45 ° is installed. On top of the entrance is closed with a tight -fitting door or hatch with a heat -insulating coating.

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